Uso de la técnica de economía de fichas para incrementar conductas de tratamiento en adultos mayores con sarcopenia
PDF

Palabras clave

token economy
resistance training
sarcopenia
elderly economía de fichas
entrenamiento de resistencia
sarcopenia
vejez

Cómo citar

Gonzalez-Martin, A. M. ., López-Espinoza, A., Martínez Moreno, A. G., Santillán Rivera, M. S., & Bernal-Gómez, S. J. (2022). Uso de la técnica de economía de fichas para incrementar conductas de tratamiento en adultos mayores con sarcopenia. Terapia Psicológica, 307-330. Recuperado a partir de https://teps.cl/index.php/teps/article/view/530

Resumen

La sarcopenia está caracterizada por la baja masa y fuerza muscular en los adultos mayores. Es causada por la disminución de la actividad física y la calidad del consumo alimentario. Por ello, la implementación de técnicas de modificación de la conducta tales como la técnica de economía de fichas puede fungir como estrategia para mejorar el tratamiento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la técnica de economía de fichas sobre las conductas de tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio de caso de múltiples sujetos con un diseño tipo ABC en ocho adultos mayores con sarcopenia. La intervención consistió en la modificación de conductas relacionadas con el tratamiento; Además, se evaluaron los cambios en masa y fuerza muscular. Los resultados mostraron que la frecuencia de las conductas objetivo aumentó en el 100% de los participantes en la etapa de intervención en comparación con la línea base. La frecuencia de las conductas objetivo no regresó a la obtenida en línea base comparando con la etapa de mantenimiento. El 83.3 % de los participantes cambiaron su dignóstico de sarcopenia.

PDF

Citas

Aagaard, P., Suetta, C., Caserotti, P., Magnusson, S. P. y Kjaer, M. (2010). Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: Strength training as a countermeasure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(1), 49–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01084.x

Aguilar-Valera, J. A. y Rodriguez, T. C. (2016). Análisis conductual aplicado en neuropsicología: Fundamentos teóricos, experimentales y empíricos. Cuadernos de Neuropsicología, 10(1), 45–54. https://tinyurl.com/4zec66py

Alqahtani, R. M. (2020). The Effects of a Token Economy System to Improve Social, Academic, and Behavior Skills with Children in KSA. International Journal of Learning and Development, 10(3), 11. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v10i3.17385

Andzik, N., Smith, E., & Neef, N. (2022). Using a Token Economy to Treat Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior Without Extinction. Behavior Modification, 46(1), 128–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445520966762

Aoki, K., Sakuma, M. y Endo, N. (2018). The impact of exercise and vitamin D supplementation on physical function in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A randomized trial. Journal of Orthopaedic Science, 23(4), 682–687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2018.03.011

Azrin, N. H., Ehle, C. T. y Beaumont, A. L. (2006). Physical Exercise as a Reinforcer to Promote Calmness of an ADHD Child. Behavior Modification, 30(5), 564–570. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445504267952

Bauer, J., Biolo, G., Cederholm, T., Cesari, M., Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Morley, J. E., Phillips, S., Sieber, C., Stehle, P., Teta, D., Visvanathan, R., Volpi, E. y Boirie, Y. (2013). Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimal Dietary Protein Intake in Older People: A Position Paper From the PROT-AGE Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(8), 542–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.05.021

Bernard, R. S., Cohen, L. L. y Moffett, K. (2009). A Token Economy for Exercise Adherence in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis: A Single-Subject Analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(4), 354–365. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsn101

Børsheim, E., Bui, Q.-U. T., Tissier, S., Kobayashi, H., Ferrando, A. A. y Wolfe, R. R. (2008). Effect of amino acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength and physical function in elderly. Clinical Nutrition, 27(2), 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2008.01.001

Calvo, S. C., Gómez, C., López, C. y López, B. (2016). Manual de alimentación: planificación alimentaria. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

Carton, J. S. y Schweitzer, J. B. (1996). Use of a token economy to increase compliance during hemodialysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29(1), 111–113. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1996.29-111

Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Brown, K., Mccomas, J. J., Peck, S. M., Drew, J., Asmus, J. y Kayser, K. (1999). Use of a Concurrent Operants Paradigm to Evaluate Positive Reinforcers during Treatment of Food Refusal. Behavior Modification, 23(1), 3–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445599231001

Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Baeyens, J. P., Bauer, J. M., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Landi, F., Martin, F. C., Michel, J.-P., Rolland, Y., Schneider, S. M., Topinkova, E., Vandewoude, M. y Zamboni, M. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age and Ageing, 39(4), 412–423. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034

De Greef, K. P., Deforche, B. I., Ruige, J. B., Bouckaert, J. J., Tudor-Locke, C. E., Kaufman, J.-M. y De Bourdeaudhuij, I. M. (2011). The effects of a pedometerbased behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 84(2), 275–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.07.010

Doll, C., McLaughlin, T. F. y Barretto, A. (2013). The Token Economy: A Recent Review and Evaluation. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 02(1), 131–149. https://tinyurl.com/2p823kyx

Dorantes-Mendoza, G., Ávila-Funes, J. A., Mejía-Arango, S. y Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M. (2007). Factores asociados con la dependencia funcional en los adultos mayores: Un análisis secundario del Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México, 2001. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 22, 1–11. https://tinyurl.com/2p8hecdn

Faigenbaum, A. y Hoffman, J. (2007). Programas para adultos mayores. En L. E. Brown (Ed.), Entrenamiento de la fuerza (pp. 333–342). Médica panamericana.

Fiatarone, M. A., O’Neill, E. F., Ryan, N. D., Clements, K. M., Solares, G. R., Nelson, M. E., Roberts, S. B., Kehayias, J. J., Lipsitz, L. A. y Evans, W. J. (1994). Exercise Training and Nutritional Supplementation for Physical Frailty in Very Elderly People. New England Journal of Medicine, 330(25), 1769–1775. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199406233302501

Field, C. E., Nash, H. M., Handwerk, M. L. y Friman, P. C. (2004). A Modification of the Token Economy for Nonresponsive Youth in Family-Style Residential Care. Behavior Modification, 28(3), 438–457. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503258995

Fielding, R. A., Vellas, B., Evans, W. J., Bhasin, S., Morley, J. E., Newman, A. B., Abellan van Kan, G., Andrieu, S., Bauer, J., Breuille, D., Cederholm, T., Chandler, J., De Meynard, C., Donini, L., Harris, T., Kannt, A., Keime Guibert, F., Onder, G., Papanicolaou, D., … Zamboni, M. (2011). Sarcopenia: An undiagnosed condition in older adults. current consensus definition: Prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International Working Group on sarcopenia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 12(4), 249–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2011.01.003

Fiske, K. E., Isenhower, R. W., Bamond, M. J., Delmolino, L., Sloman, K. N. y LaRue, R. H. (2015). Assessing the value of token reinforcement for individuals with autism: Value of token reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48(2), 448–453. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.207

Ivy, J. W., Meindl, J. N., Overley, E. y Robson, K. M. (2017). Token Economy: A Systematic Review of Procedural Descriptions. Behavior Modification, 41(5), 708–737. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445517699559

Kelley, C. P., Sbrocco, G. y Sbrocco, T. (2016). Behavioral Modification for the Management of Obesity. Primary Care, 43(1), 159–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2015.10.004

Kern, L. y Marder, T. J. (1996). A comparison of simultaneous and delayed reinforcement as treatments for food selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29(2), 243–246. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1996.29-243

Krentz, H., Miltenberger, R. y Valbuena, D. (2016). Using token reinforcement to increase walking for adults with intellectual disabilities: Token reinforcement to increase walking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(4), 745–750. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.326

Lee Saber, J. (2017). Dojo Tokens: The Effects of a Token Economy on Undergraduate Student Behaviour and Performance. Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education, 25(2). https://tinyurl.com/bdheyb8h

Lee, S. Y., Park, J., Kim, D. H., & Lim, J.-Y. (2021). Combined exercise and nutrition intervention for spinal sarcopenia: A pilot study protocol. Medicine, 100(24), e26421. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026421

Leenders, M., Verdijk, L. B., van der Hoeven, L., van Kranenburg, J., Nilwik, R. y van Loon, L. J. C. (2013). Elderly Men and Women Benefit Equally From Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(7), 769–779. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls241

Liddon, C. J., Kelley, M. E., Rey, C. N., Liggett, A. P., & Ribeiro, A. (2018). A translational analysis of ABA and ABC renewal of operant behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51(4), 819–830. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.496

Magrab, P. R. y Papadopoulou, Z. L. (1977). The effect of a token economy on dietary compliance for children on hemodialysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(4), 573–578. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1977.10-573

Maltais, M. L., Perreault, K., Courchesne-Loyer, A., Lagacé, J.-C., Barsalani, R. y Dionne, I. J. (2016). Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Older Adult Men: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26(1), 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0160

McKendry, J., Currier, B. S., Lim, C., Mcleod, J. C., Thomas, A. C. Q., & Phillips, S. M. (2020). Nutritional Supplements to Support Resistance Exercise in Countering the Sarcopenia of Aging. Nutrients, 12(7), 2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072057

Mendoza, S., Muñoz, M., Merino, J. M. y Barriga, O. A. (2006). Factores determinantes de cumplimiento terapéutico en adultos mayores hipertensos. Revista Médica de Chile, 134(1). https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872006000100009

Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). The token economy. En su Behavior Modification (6a ed., pp. 447–468). Cengage Learning.

Morley, J., Argiles, J., Evans, W., Bhasin, S., Cella, D., Deutz, N. E. P., Doehner, W., Fearon, K. C. H., Ferrucci, L., Hellerstein, M. K., Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Lochs, H., MacDonald, N., Mulligan, K., Muscaritoli, M., Ponikowski, P., Posthauer, M. E., Fanelli, F. R., Schambelan, M., … Anker, S. D. (2010). Nutritional Recommendations for the Management of Sarcopenia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 11(6), 391–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2010.04.014

Pane, H. M., Sidener, T. M., Reeve, S. A., Kisamore, A., & Nirgudkar, A. (2022). A comparison of development‐matched and age‐matched targets on play skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 55(1), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.891

Palus, S., Springer, J. I., Doehner, W., von Haehling, S., Anker, M., Anker, S. D. y Springer, J. (2017). Models of sarcopenia: Short review. International Journal of Cardiology, 238, 19–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.03.152

Russell, D., Ingvarsson, E. T., Haggar, J. L. y Jessel, J. (2018). Using progressive ratio schedules to evaluate tokens as generalized conditioned reinforcers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51(1), 40–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.424

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Teorías del aprendizaje (6a ed.). Pearson.

Shafiee, G., Keshtkar, A., Soltani, A., Ahadi, Z., Larijani, B. y Heshmat, R. (2017). Prevalence of sarcopenia in the world: A systematic review and meta- analysis of general population studies. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 16(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-017-0302-x

Silva, G. E., Galeano, E. y Correa, J. O. (2005). Adherencia al tratamiento Implicaciones de la no-adherencia. Acta Médica Colombiana, 30(4), 268–273. https://tinyurl.com/ywh3yepe

Suverza, A. y Haua, K. E. (2010). ABCD de la evaluación del estado de nutrición. McGraw-Hill.

Tieland, M., Franssen, R., Dullemeijer, C., van Dronkelaar, C., Kim, H. K., Ispoglou, T., Zhu, K., Prince, R. L., van Loon, L. J. C. y de Groot, L. C. P. G. M. (2017). The impact of dietary protein or amino acid supplementation on muscle mass and strength in elderly people: Individual participant data and meta-analysis of RCT’s. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 21(9), 994–1001. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-017-0896-1

Trethewey, S. P., Brown, N., Gao, F. y Turner, A. M. (2019). Interventions for the management and prevention of sarcopenia in the critically ill: A systematic review. Journal of Critical Care, 50, 287–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.01.008

Tsekoura, M., Billis, E., Kastrinis, A., Katsoulaki, M., Fousekis, K., Tsepis, E., Konstantoudaki, X., & Gliatis, J. (2021). The Effects of Exercise in Patients with Sarcopenia. In P. Vlamos (Ed.), GeNeDis 2020 (Vol. 1337, pp. 281–290). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78771-4_31

Williamson, R. L., & McFadzen, C. (2020). Evaluating the Impact of Token Economy Methods on Student On-task Behaviour within an Inclusive Canadian Classroom. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, 9(1), 1531–1541. https://tinyurl.com/yc7db7vv

Zdzieblik, D., Oesser, S., Baumstark, M. W., Gollhofer, A. y König, D. (2015). Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition, 114(8), 1237–1245. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515002810

SCImago Journal & Country Rank